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یکشنبه 5 اردیبهشت 1389  11:21 ب.ظ

تاریخچه زبان انگلیسی

تاریخچه زبان انگلیسی

*انگلیسی کهن (1100-449)
در قرنِ پنجم میلادی، مردمانی از سه قبیله "جوت"، "انگِل" و "ساکسون" که در "آلمان" و "دانمارک" کنونی ساکن بودند، به کشور انگلستان حمله ور شده و آن سرزمین ،که مردمی سِلتیک-زبان داشت را تصرف می کنند. جوتها در جنوبِ شرقی ساکن شده و در تعامل با زبانهای محلی، لهجه "کِنتی" را بوجود آوردند. ساکسون ها هم که در جنوب و جنوبِ غربی سکنی گزیدند، لحجه "ساکسونِ غربی" را خلق کردند.
اما انگل هایی که در شمال و مرکزِ انگلستان اقامت گزیده بودند، به ترتیب، لهجه های "آمبِریای شمالی" و "مِرسیایی" را بوجود آوردند. از قرنِ نهمِ میلادی، لهجه ساکسونی، شاید به دلیلِ سلطه پادشاه آلفرد (نخستین شاهِ انگلستان که فردی از قبیله ساکسون بود)، بر سایر لحجه ها برتری یافته و به عنوان زبان رسمی این کشور شناخته شد.

زبان انگلیسی کهن، از نظر لهجه، بسیار متفاوت از انگلیسی امروزین است. برای نمونه، واژه های light و drought ، بًَه ترتیب بصورت «لیخت» و «دراخت» تلفظ می شده و یا جمله Will you give me your jacket, good man?، اینگونه ادا می شده:
Wilt ðu sellan me ðin clæð, godman min?
تعداد معدودی واژه قرضی در این دوره، از زبان لاتین، وارد انگلیسی شد. واژگانی چون: altar, mass, priest, psalm, temple, kitchen, palm, pear, ... از آنجمله اند. تعداد کمتری واژه هم از زبان اسکاندیناوی ، بوسیله وایکینگ ها که از اواخر قرن هشتم به بعد، به تدریج حمله هایی به انگلستان نموده و بخش هایی را متصرف شده بودند، وارد این زبان شد. از جمله این واژگان، می توان به law, take, cut, both, ill, ugly، اشاره کرد.
انگلیسیِ کهن ، گنجینه واژگانی غنی نداشت اما، همچون سایر زبانهای هند و اروپایی ، دستور پیچیده ای داشت. برای شناخت بهتر این دستور، به جدول های زیر توجه کنید:

جدول صرف اسم در زبان انگلیسی (توضیح: اسم در زبان انگلیسی کهن، جنسیت داشت. یعنی مونث، مذکر یا خنثی بود. اسم مذکر، می توانست با قاعده یا بی قاعده باشد)
جدول صرف ضمیر در زبان انگلیسی کهن (در جدول زیر، ضمیرهای انگلیسی کهن با انگلیسی نو مقایسه شده است. توجه کنید که حتی مواردی چون thee و thine هم امروزه تنها در متنهای ادبی استفاده می شود.) 1: ضمیر مفرد
تاریخچه زبان انگلیسی
 
زبان انگلیسی یکی از زبان‌های هندواروپایی از شاخه ژرمنی است. از دیگر زبان‌های شاخه ژرمنی می‌توان از آلمانی، هلندی، دانمارکی، سوئدی و نروژی نام برد. از آنجا که زبان فارسی نیز زبانی هندواروپایی (از شاخه آریایی) است، زبان فارسی با زبان‌های ژرمنی از جمله با انگلیسی خویشاوند است. خود شاخه ژرمنی به دو بخش شرقی و غربی تقسیم می‌شود که انگلیسی به ژرمنی غربی تعلق دارد. امروزه حدود نیمی از مجموعه واژگان زبان انگلیسی و دستور آن زبان از همان ریشه ژرمنی است ولی نیم دیگر را وامواژه‌ها تشکیل می‌دهند. بیشتر این وامواژه‌ها از زبان‌های لاتین و فرانسوی و بخشی دیگر از یونانی و دیگر زبان‌ها به انگلیسی وارد شده‌اند.
زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان مادری در کشورهای انگلستان، آمریکا، کانادا، استرالیا، ایرلند، نیوزلند، افریقای جنوبی و بسیاری کشورهای دیگر تکلم می‌شود. انگلیسی امروزه ار نظر تعداد گویشوَر، پس از چینی، عربی، اسپانیایی و هندی، پنجمین زبان جهانست. تعداد کسانی که زبان مادری‌شان انگلیسی است امروزه 380 میلیون نفر است. انگلیسی در بسیاری از کشورها زبان میانجی است و مهم‌ترین زبان دنیا در زمینه‌های سیاسی، اقتصادی، نظامی، صنعتی، فرهنگی و علمی در روابط بین‌الملل بشمار می‎آید.

  انگلیسی کهن معادل در انگلیسی امروز
اول شخص
نهادی (فاعلی) Ic I
مفعولی Me Me
مفعولی با واسطه Me Me
ملکی Min Mine
دوم شخص
نهادی (فاعلی) Ðu You
مفعولی Ðe Thee
مفعولی با واسطه Ðe  
ملکی Ðin Thine
سوم شخص
مذکر
نهادی (فاعلی) He He
مفعولی hine  
مفعولی با واسطه Him Him
ملکی His His
مونث
نهادی (فاعلی) Heo She
مفعولی hiere Her
مفعولی با واسطه hiere Her
ملکی Hie  
خنثی
نهادی (فاعلی) Hit It
مفعولی Hit It
مفعولی با واسطه Him  
ملکی His Its
2 : ضمیر مثنی (در انگلیسی امروز، ضمیر مثنی وجود ندارد)
3 : ضمیر جمع
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انگلیسی میانه (1500-1100)
پس از تصرفِ انگلستان بوسیله نورمن ها که در سال 1066 صورت گرفت، به تدریج، تحول شگرفی در زبان انگلیسی پدید آمد. چون زبان فرانسوی - به واسطه حکومتِ نورمن ها - زبانِ کهبدان و بلندپایگانِ جامعه، و انگلیسیِ کهن، زبانِ عوام و دونپایگان بشمار می رفت، زبان فرانسوی اثری چشمگیر بر انگلیسی گذاشت. تا پیش از سال 1250، تنها 950 واژه نو، بیشتر بدلیل ارتباط انگلیسی ها و فرانسویها، وارد زبان انگلیسی شد. اما ناگهان، چون فرانسویان شروع به یادگیری زبان انگلیسی نموده و واژگانی از زبان خود را وارد زبان مقصد کردند، تعداد بی شماری واژه از زبان فرانسوی قرض گرفته شد؛ بطوریکه اکنون یک سوم واژگان زبان انگلیسی، ریشه فرانسوی دارند. گویش midland، از قرن چهاردهم، یعنی زمانیکه مناطق زیر پوشش این گویش، به مراکز توسعه دانشگاهی، پیشرفت اقتصادی و زندگی اشرافی در انگلستان تبدیل شد، جای خود را بعنوان مهمترین گویش در این دوره، باز کرد. میدلند شرقی ، در این زمان، گویش مسلط شهر لندن شده و سه دلیل عمده موجب برتری مطلق این گویش گردید؛ بگونه ای که انگلیسی امروزی، تقریبا شکل تکامل یافته میدلند شرقی است. این سه عامل عبارتند از: 1) نفوذ این گویش به دستگاههای حکومتی و مکاتبه های دولتی. 2) آثار بزرگانی چون



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